## Mathematics

Middle School Mathematics includes BPS Courses 436, 437, 438 and Math Foundations at 6th, 7th, and 8th grade levels. Over the course of a students’ time in Middle School, they cover major topics in Number Sense, Patterns and Relations, Data and Statistics, and Measurement and Geometry. Teachers design classroom experiences using an inquiry/problem-solving model of instruction that allows students to explore concepts from a variety of perspectives and representations. Whether students are working at grade level or toward independent living skills, they address all of the standards at the highest levels attainable by each student. As they progress, our students develop an understanding of important mathematical concepts through a process that emphasizes communicating, reasoning, and building connections between algebraic concepts, additional strands of mathematics, and real world applications. Some of the materials our students usually work with were earlier published at https://occupytheory.org/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-qualitative-research/.

### Standards

#### Number Sense

• Basic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division
• Fractions
• Integers (positive and negative numbers)

#### Patterns and Relations

• Introduction to Algebraic Concepts
• Using Algebraic Symbols (x, y, and other variables)
• Analyzing patterns at various levels (linear, exponential, quadratic)

#### Data and Statistics

• Calculating Measures of Central Tendency (mean, median, mode, and range)
• Reading various types of graphs
• Calculating Probability

#### Measurement and Geometry

• Units of Measurement (cm, in, meters, liters, gallons, etc)
• Properties of polygons
• Pythagorean Theorem

At all levels of mathematics students are required to demonstrate their mastery of skills through various math tasks, tests, and “modules” (middle and end of unit assessments). In addition to these assessments students participate in a mid and end of year assessment and MCAS. Students routinely display their work throughout the Middle School and apply their skills during fundraising for Student Government or upcoming school activities.

### Middle School Math Staff:

Fiona Bennie,
Katherine Angoff,
Stephen Weiner,

HMS students routinely use computers to help them in their mathematical studies. The following websites are used on a regular basis in the Horace Mann Middle School.

Study Island
a website designed to prepare students for the Massachusetts MCAS test, grades 3-8.

Select Math
a website designed to provide activities specificly designed to match each Connected Math unit used by students in courses 436, 437, and 438.

National Library of Virtual Manipulatives
this site provides computer-generated activities and “virtual manipulatives” designed to help students grades K-12 in all of the mathematics strands.